Agata Kleczkowska

tel. (22) 65-72-885
Office hours: Wednesdays from 13.00-15.00, room 216
  • PhD in Public International Law, Assistant Professor at the Institute of Law Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences
  • Co-Editor of the Digest of State Practice, Journal on the Use of Force and International Law
  • Managing Editor of the Contemporary Central & East European Law journal
  • Member of the International Law Association Study Group on the Role of Cities in International Law
  • Called to the bar in 2018
  • Member of the expert pools of the European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats and the UP Centre for International Humanitarian and Operational Law
  • Threat and use of force
  • Retorsions
  • Hybrid threats and lawfare
  • International recognition
  • Statehood
  • Armed non-state actors
  • International organizations

Research projects:

  • ‘Retorsions in public international law’ – project funded by the National Science Centre; UMO-2020/39/B/HS5/03383; principal investigator: dr Agata Kleczkowska
  • Threat of use of force in contemporary practice of States’ – research project realized in the framework of the project ‘Excellence in Legal Research. Promoting Polish achievements in the area of legal sciences abroad’ funded by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education
  • ‘Liability for crimes committed by armed non-state actors – domestic and international perspective’ – project funded by the National Science Centre; UMO-2016/23/N/HS5/02849; principal investigator: dr Agata Kleczkowska
  • ‘The legal situation of unrecognized subjects in international law’ – project funded by the National Science Centre; UMO-2014/13/B/HS5/01490; participant: dr Agata Kleczkowska
  • ‘Customary law of the use of force’ – donation for young researchers; leader of the project: dr Agata Kleczkowska
  • ‘Legal position of unrecognized subjects in contemporary international law’ – Polish – Chinese (Taiwan) Joint Research Project for Years 2017-2018; member of the project


  • Scientific Award of the Director of the Institute of Law Studies of the PAS, 2018
  • Graduation from the barrister’s training cum laude, 2018
  • The Best Graduate of Law in the academic year 2013/2014
  • 1st Award in the Professor Jan Białocerkiewicz Competition for the Best MA Thesis


  • 2020 – Program START, Foundation for Polish Science
  • 2018 – Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg
  • 2016 – International Law Association Scholarship Award


  1. „Threats of Force and International Law. Practice, Responses and Consequences”, Routledge 2023, ISBN 9781032446271.
  2. „Użycie siły zbrojnej między państwami w świetle międzynarodowego prawa zwyczajowego” [Use of armed force by States in the light of customary international law], Scholar Publishing House 2018, ISBN: 978-83-7383-965-6.

Editor of collected volumes:

  1. W. Czapliński, A. Kleczkowska (eds.), Unrecognised Subjects in International Law, Scholar Publishing House 2019, ISBN: 978-83-7383-964-9.

Book chapters:

  1. „Teoria sprzecznych prądów we współczesnym prawie międzynarodowym na przykładzie zakazu użycia siły” [The theory of cross-currents in contemporary international law: example of the use of force] [in:] A. Przyborowska-Klimczak, W. S. Staszewski, P. Krukowska-Siembida, A. Szarek-Zwijacz (eds.), Polska nauka prawa międzynarodowego Dziedzictwo przeszłości i wyzwania współczesności, Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL 2022, ISBN: 978-83-6664-701-5.
  2. „Status zbrojnych aktorów niepaństwowych w prawie międzynarodowym – uwagi wstępne” [Status of armed non-state actors under international law – preliminary remarks] [in:] I. Kraśnicka (ed.), Prawo międzynarodowe – teoria a praktyka, CH Beck 2020, ISBN: 978-83-8158-920-8.
  3. „Recognition and the Use of Force: How Denial of Statehood Affects International Peace and Security” [in:] W. Czapliński, A. Kleczkowska (eds.), Unrecognised Subjects in International Law, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar 2019, ISBN: 978-83-7383-964-9.
  4. „Armed non-state actors and customary international law” [in:] J. Summers, A. Gough (eds.), Non-State Actors and International Obligations: Creation, Evolution and Enforcement, Brill 2018, ISBN: 978-90-04-34023-7.
  5. „The distinctiveness of the Latin American security system – why is it so different? Public international law perspective” [in:] P. Frankowski, A. Gruszczak (eds.), Drifting regional security. Cross-disciplinary perspectives on regional and global shifts security in the 21st century, Palgrave Macmillan 2018, ISBN: 978-3-319-75280-8.
  6. “The Use of Force in Case of Secession” [in:] A.-S. Millet-Devalle (ed.), The Use of Force in International Relations: Issues of International and European Law – L’usage de la force dans les relations internationales: aspects de droit international et de droit européen, Editoriale Scientifica 2018, ISBN: 978-88-9391-452-9.
  7. „Państwo upadłe a zakaz użycia siły – uwagi z perspektywy prawa międzynarodowego publicznego” [The failed State and the prohibition of the use of force – remarks from the perspective of public international law] [in:] A. Gruszczak (ed.), Meandry współczesnego bezpieczeństwa: między regionalizacją a globalizacją, Wydawnictwo UJ 2018, ISBN: 978-83-233-4565-7.
  8. „Granice zobowiązań państw wynikających z norm ius cogens – przykład tzw. interwencji humanitarnej” [The limits of States’ obligations as derived from the ius cogens norms – the example of the so-called humanitarian intervention] [in:] B. Kuźniak, M. Ingelevič-Citak (eds.), Ius cogens, soft law – dwa bieguny prawa międzynarodowego publicznego, Wydawnictwo UJ 2017, ISBN: 978-83-233-4310-3.
  9. „The changing role of customary international law in the international criminal judiciary from the perspective of the Rome Statute” [in:] A. Górski (ed.), Międzynarodowy Trybunał Karny/International Criminal Court, Defin 2017, ISBN 978-83-80854-87-1.
  10. „Ewolucja funkcji konsulów honorowych: uwagi z perspektywy ustawy – Prawo konsularne” [Evolution of the function of the honorary consuls: remarks from the perspective of the draft bill – Consular Act] [in:] W. Burek, P. Czubik (eds.), Polskie prawo konsularne w okresie zmian, Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych RP 2015, ISBN: 978-83-63743-19-2.


  1. „Prohibition of Threats of Force: A Silently Contested Norm?”, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 2023, vol. 83 (1), ISSN: 0044-2348.
  2. „The legal assessment of acts of environmental warfare during the armed conflict in Ukraine”, Die Neue Zeitschrift für Wehrrecht 2023, vol. 65 (2), ISSN: 0028-3525.
  3. „Autonomous weapons and the right to self-defence”, Israel Law Review 2023, vol. 56 (1), ISSN: 0021-2237.
  4. „Memorandum Budapesztańskie – umowa międzynarodowa czy niewiążące porozumienie?” [The Budapest Memorandum – is it binding or non-binding instrument?], Władza Sądzenia 2021, nr 20, ISSN: 2300-1690.
  5. „Where is the European Court of Human Rights Heading? Comments on the Grand Chamber Admissibility Decision in Ukraine v. Russia (re Crimea) (Applications No. 20958/14 and 38334/18)”, Polish Review of International and European Law 2021, vol. 10 (2), ISSN: 2299-2170.
  6. „Sankcje ustanawiane przez Radę Bezpieczeństwa ONZ a państwa nieczłonkowskie ONZ” [Sanctions adopted by the UN Security Council and States Non-Members of the United Nations], Roczniki Nauk Prawnych 2020, vol. 30 nr 3, ISSN 1507-7896.
  7. „The meaning of treaty authorisation and ad hoc consent for the legality of military assistance on request”, Journal on the Use of Force and International Law 2020, vol. 7 (2), ISSN 2053-1702.
  8. „Identyfikacja międzynarodowego prawa zwyczajowego w opinii doradczej Międzynarodowego Trybunału Sprawiedliwości w sprawie archipelagu Czagos” [Identification of customary international law in the ICJ advisory opinion on Chagos Archipelago], Zeszyty Prawnicze 2020, vol. 20 (3), ISSN 1643-8183.
  9. „The Illegality of Humanitarian Intervention: The Case of the UK’s Legal Position Concerning the 2018 Strikes in Syria”, Utrecht Journal of International and European Law 2020, vol. 35 (1), ISSN 2053-5341.
  10. „States vs. non-state actors – a public international law perspective”, Strategic Analysis 2020, vol. 20, ISSN: 2490-1032.
  11. „Explaining the meaning of ‘grey zones’ in public international law based on the example of the conflict in Ukraine”, Contemporary Central & East European Law 2019, issue 1 (133), ISSN: 0070-7325.
  12. „The Obligation of Non-recognition: The Case of the Crimea Annexation”, Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 2019, vol. 5 no. 1, ISSN: 1614-3515.
  13. „Changing customary law – the shape of the prohibition of the use of force after the 2017 and 2018 airstrikes in Syria”, International Community Law Review 2019, vol. 21 issue 3-4, ISSN: 1871-9740.
  14. „The misconception about the term ‘intervention by invitation’”, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht 2019, vol. 79 issue 3, ISSN: 0044-2348.
  15. „Filling the Gap: The New Regime of Responsibility for Armed Non-State Actors”, Australian International Law Journal 2018, vol. 25, ISSN 1325-5029.
  16. „The US Strike of 7 April 2017 and How it Influenced the Law on the Use of Force”, The Military Law and the Law of War Review 2018, vol. 56 (1), ISSN: 0556-7394.
  17. „When ‘the Use of Force’ is Prohibited? – Article 2 (4) and the ‘Threshold’ of the Use of Force”, Adam Mickiewicz University Law Review 2018, vol. 8, ISSN: 2450-0976.
  18. „‘Recognition’ of governments by international organizations – the example of the UN General Assembly and Asian States”, Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs 2018, vol. XXXV, ISSN: 0731-0854.
  19. „Judgment of the Supreme Court, dated 17 February 2016 (Ref. no. WA 16/15)”, Polish Yearbook of International Law 2017, Tom XXXVI, ISSN: 0554-498X.
  20. „Decision of the Supreme Court – Criminal Chamber, Dated October 14, 2015”, Polish Yearbook of International Law 2016, Tom XXXV, ISSN: 0554-498X.
  21. „Palestyna – państwo nieuznawane” [Palestine – unrecognized State], Stosunki międzynarodowe – International Relations 2016, vol. 52 issue 1, ISSN: 0209-0961.
  22. Karta Narodów Zjednoczonych jako światowa konstytucja – uwagi z perspektywy zakazu użycia siły” [The Charter of the United Nations as the world constitution – remarks from the perspective of the prohibition of the use of force], Studia Prawnicze 2016, vol. 3 (207), ISSN: 0039-3312.
  23. „Wojna hybrydowa – uwagi z perspektywy prawa międzynarodowego publicznego” [Hybrid war – remarks from the perspective of public international law], Sprawy Międzynarodowe 2015, nr 2, ISSN: 0038-853X.
  24. „Reakcja państwa na napaść zbrojną ze strony aktora niepaństwowego – uwagi na przykładzie doktryny unwilling or unable”  [Reaction of a State towards the armed attack carried out by non-state actor – the example of the unwilling or unable doctrine], Problemy Współczesnego Prawa Międzynarodowego, Europejskiego i Porównawczego XIII/2015, ISSN: 1730-4504.
  25. „How law can recognize culture? The examples from different legal systems?”, Studia Iuridica Thoruniensia 15/2014, ISSN: 1689-5258.
  26. „Czy prawo widzi różnice? Ocena polskiego stanu prawnego przy aktualnym zróżnicowaniu kulturowym i religijnym polskiego społeczeństwa” [Does law see differences? About the social and cultural differentiation in law], Pogranicze. Studia Społeczne 2013, vol. XXII, ISSN 1230-2392.
  27. „Status Palestyny w Organizacji Narodów Zjednoczonych”  [The status of Palestine in the United Nations], Przegląd Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Społeczny 1/2013, ISSN: 2084-0403.
  28. „Ochrona dziennikarzy w międzynarodowym prawie humanitarnym”, Wiedza Prawnicza 3/2013 [The protection of journalists in international humanitarian law], ISSN: 2080-4202.
  29. „Rola cultural defence w wymiarze karnej sprawiedliwości” [Th role of cultural defense in criminal administration of justice], Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny 2/2012, ISSN: 0035-9629.

Headnotes prepared for the Oxford International Organizations:

  1. OXIO 34 “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 174 (III). Establishment of an International Law Commission (with annex)”
  2. OXIO 97 “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/22 (1979)”
  3. OXIO 120 “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2636 (XXV)”
  4. OXIO 156 “Resolution on the adoption of necessary measures to prevent Cuba from threatening the peace and security of the Continent, 23 October 1962”
  5. OXIO 174 “United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 (1991)”
  6. OXIO 264 “Organization of American States General Assembly Resolution 1080 (XXIO/91): Representative Democracy”
  7. OXIO 346 “Request for the inclusion of a supplementary item in the agenda of the fortyeights session: Consideration of the exceptional situation of the Republic of China in Taiwan in the International Context, based on the principle of universality and in accordance with the established model of parallel representation of divided States at the United Nations: Letter dated 6 August 1993 from the representatives of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General”
  8. OXIO 376 “The Legal Problem Raised by the Representative of Argentina in Connection with the Admission of Pakistan: Statement by the Rapporteur of the Sixth Committee of the Legal Problems Raised by the Representative of Argentina during the Discussion of the Admission of Pakistan”
  9. OXIO 406 “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 97 (I) on Registration and Publication of Treaties and International Agreements: Regulations to give effect to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations”
  10. OXIO 461 “Rules of procedure of the General Assembly”

Selected blogs’ entries:

  1. “Acts of Aggression During an Ongoing Armed Conflict: How Can We View the Events of February 24?”, 14.03.2022,
  2. “Nord Stream Explosions as a Breach of the Peace”, 31.10.2022,
  3. “What does the ‘hybrid attack’ carried out by Belarus against the EU borders mean in reality? An international law perspective”, 13.12.2021,
  4. “Three Reasons Why the International Community Should Engage with the Situation in Belarus”, 25.09.2020,
  5. “A bridge too far: Polish-Czech border incident”, 5.08.2020, (together with M. Faix)